Banda Arc Geophysics

Archaeology: Introduction

 

Legionary plus Boudica

The most likely locations for Boudica's last battle. Left to right: Ogbourne St. George in the Og river valley, Wiltshire (site rank number 4); Dorking in the Mole river valley, Surrey (sites 1 and 2); The Bulbourne river valley in the Chilterns, Hertfordshire (sites 3,5,7,8,10 and 11x2).

 

In either 60 or 61 AD Boudica, Queen of the Iceni in Britain, lead a revolt against Roman imperialism. She failed and died, along with many other tribesmen and women, in a huge battle located somewhere in the south of Britain.

The battle-site has yet to be found. The image above shows the most likely locations for this very important battle (details in - 2015 Finding the site of Boudica's last battle: multi-attribute analysis of sites identified by template matching). (Internet Explorer users click here)

Since 2010 the author has attempted to use modern investigative techniques, for example topographical GIS and hydrology, to refine the search for the battle-site. This has resulted in a number of essays - listed below - resulting in the latest in 2015 from which the image above is taken.

As time and work progress old essays will be revised and new published. Meanwhile, the essays listed cover: the original terrain analysis work; an updated version of the logistical, hydrological and water analysis study; a piece on Roman temporary marching camps and how this aids the search for Boudica's last stand; work on Roman legionary marching rates, energy expenditure and marching column formations; an essay on the Roman invasion of Britian in 43 AD; and, the latest in 2015, an essay on finding Boudica's battle-site using template matching which supersedes earlier work.

Click to open map in new tab

Click on the map above to see an Interactive map of Roman roads, marching camps and prospective sites for Boudica's last battle (elements are Crown Copyright).Click on any element to display tabular information. The Roman marching camps are colour coded according to size - see the legend. The numbers for legionaries, servants etc. are based on a camp density of 690 men per hectare. Only the top 20 of prospective Boudican battle sites are shown (large blue icons but with only sites 1-10 being numbered; some icons overlay others, e.g. zoom in on 2 to see 1 at Dorking). Only Roman roads in England have display information.

 

 

Essays and posters:

2015 Finding the site of Boudica's last battle: multi-attribute analysis of sites identified by template matching. (Internet Explorer users click here)

This is the latest essay in the series 'Finding the site of Boudica's last battle'. The listing of ranked battle-sites supercedes those in earlier essays (2010 and 2013).

The top 100 candidate battle-sites from this essay can be viewed in Google Earth by downloading this KMZ file.

2015 Kaye, S.J. 2015. The Roman invasion of Britain, 43 AD: riverine, wading and tidal studies place limits on the possible locations of the two-day river battle and beachhead. Archaeologia Cantiana, Vol. 136, 227-240.

2014 The Roman invasion of Britain, 43 AD: riverine, wading and tidal studies as a means of limiting the possible locations of the invasion-ground and the two-day river battle

2013 Observations on marching Roman legionaries: velocities, energy expenditure, column formations and distances

2013 Conference Poster: Searching for Boudica's last battle: an approach via terrain analysis, hydrology and marching camps. Conference 'On Boudica's Trail', Atherstone Civic Soc. at Warwick Uni. (PDF)

2013 Roman marching camps in Britain: GIS, statistical analysis and hydrological examination of known camp sites, resulting in the prediction of possible camp sites

2013 Finding the site of Boudica's last battle: Roman logistics empowered the sword (this is an update of the original essay published in 2012 and contains the author's latest observations on the possible Boudican battle sites)

2010 Finding the site of Boudica's last battle: an approach via terrain analysis. A short version of this essay was published in British Archaeology, Sept/Oct 2010 - Can Computerised Terrain Analysis Find Boudica's Last Battlefield? (Unfortunately this archived article has not retained its images; a photocopied version, plus images, can be downloaded here)

 

Some readers will prefer to read the essays as separate PDFs:

2015 Finding the site of Boudica's last battle: multi-attribute analysis of sites identified by template matching. (14 mb PDF, high resolution images)

2014 The Roman invasion of Britain, 43 AD: riverine, wading and tidal studies as a means of limiting the possible locations of the invasion-ground and the two-day river battle.(5 mb PDF)

2013 Observations on marching Roman legionaries: velocities, energy expenditure, column formations and distances. Steve Kaye, October 2013.(1.6 mb PDF)

2013 Roman marching camps in Britain: GIS, statistical analysis and hydrological examination of known camp sites, resulting in the prediction of possible camp sites (5.3 mb PDF)

2013 Finding the site of Boudica's last battle: Roman logistics empowered the sword ( 8.6 mb PDF)

2010 Finding the site of Boudica's last battle: an approach via terrain analysis (3.2 mb PDF )

Steve Kaye. Protected under UK and international law. May be used free of charge. Selling without prior written consent prohibited. Obtain permission before redistributing. In all cases this notice must remain intact.