The most likely locations for Boudica's last battle. Left to right: Ogbourne St. George in the Og river valley, Wiltshire (site rank number 4); Dorking in the Mole river valley, Surrey (sites 1 and 2); The Bulbourne river valley in the Chilterns, Hertfordshire (sites 3,5,7,8,10 and 11x2).
In either 60 or 61 AD Boudica, Queen of the Iceni in
Britain, lead a revolt against Roman imperialism. She failed and died, along
with many other tribesmen and women, in a huge battle located somewhere in the south of
The battle-site has yet to be found. The image above shows the most likely locations for this very important battle (details in - 2015 Finding the site of Boudica's last battle: multi-attribute analysis of sites identified by template matching). (Internet Explorer users click here)
Since 2010 the author has attempted to use modern investigative techniques, for example topographical GIS and hydrology, to refine the search for the battle-site. This has resulted in a number of essays - listed below - resulting in the latest in 2015 from which the image above is taken.
As time and work progress old essays will be revised
and new published. Meanwhile, the essays listed cover:
the original terrain analysis work; an updated version of the logistical,
hydrological and water analysis study; a piece on Roman temporary
marching camps and how this aids the search for Boudica's last stand; work on Roman legionary marching rates, energy expenditure and marching column formations; an essay on the Roman invasion of Britian in 43 AD; and, the latest in 2015, an essay on finding Boudica's battle-site using template matching which supersedes earlier work.
Click on the map above to see an Interactive map of Roman roads, marching camps and prospective sites for Boudica's last battle (elements are Crown Copyright).Click on any element to display tabular information. The Roman marching camps are colour coded according to size - see the legend. The numbers for legionaries, servants etc. are based on a camp density of 690 men per hectare. Only the top 20 of prospective Boudican battle sites are shown (large blue icons but with only sites 1-10 being numbered; some icons overlay others, e.g. zoom in on 2 to see 1 at Dorking). Only Roman roads in England have display information.
2015 Finding the site of Boudica's last battle: multi-attribute analysis of sites identified by template matching. (Internet Explorer users click here)
This is the latest essay in the series 'Finding the site of Boudica's last battle'. The listing of ranked battle-sites supercedes those in earlier essays (2010 and 2013).
The top 100 candidate battle-sites from this essay can be viewed in Google Earth by downloading this KMZ file.
2015 Kaye, S.J. 2015. The Roman invasion of Britain, 43 AD: riverine, wading and tidal studies place limits on the possible locations of the two-day river battle and beachhead. Archaeologia Cantiana, Vol. 136, 227-240.
2014 The Roman invasion of Britain, 43 AD: riverine, wading and tidal studies as a means of limiting the possible locations of the invasion-ground and the two-day river battle
2013 Observations on marching Roman legionaries: velocities, energy expenditure, column formations and distances
2013 Conference Poster: Searching for Boudica's last battle: an approach via terrain analysis, hydrology and marching camps. Conference 'On Boudica's Trail', Atherstone Civic Soc. at Warwick Uni. (PDF)
2013 Roman marching camps
in Britain: GIS, statistical analysis and hydrological examination of known
camp sites, resulting in the prediction of possible camp sites
2013 Finding the site of Boudica's last battle: Roman logistics
empowered the sword (this is an update of the original essay published in
2012 and contains the author's latest observations on the possible Boudican
2010 Finding the site of Boudica's last battle: an approach via
terrain analysis. A short version of this essay was published in British
Archaeology, Sept/Oct 2010 - Can
Computerised Terrain Analysis Find Boudica's Last Battlefield? (Unfortunately this archived article has not retained its images; a photocopied version, plus images, can be downloaded here)